中國水污染危機
中國水污染問題 Spacer
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綠色和平的水污染工作

捍衛杯中水,我們在行動

除了在政策的層面改變中國水污染,綠色和平亦走訪受水污染影響的地區作野外考察,記下不少令人印象深刻的地方與人物小故事。有你的支持,成就我們進行更多防治水污染工作!



故事一: 穿上身上的水污染 故事二: 吃下肚的水污染
故事三: 排污古惑招 故事四: 紙上談野外考察

故事一:穿在身上的水污染(筆者: 綠色和平項目主任 趙琰) 這是Google Earth上的一張衛星圖,很難想像,這樣觸目驚心的水污染景象離我們並不遠,造成這樣污染的工業也和我們的生活息息相關。到底是什麼讓河流看起來如此「黑白分明」呢?

Google地圖展示中國水污染

綠色和平成員親身來到地圖上的城鎮時,發現當地幾乎每一條河流的顏色都如衛星圖上體現那樣,是深深的藍黑色。

而鎮上幾乎每家每戶,都在從事著和牛仔褲加工相關的行業。

沒錯,正是這些牛仔褲染黑了當地的河流。因為當地的牛仔褲工業,可謂包羅萬象。除了圖片上體現的手工操作之外,從棉布到可以穿上身的製成品,一條牛仔褲誕生所需要的所有工序,都可以在這裏找到。這些工序對水污染「貢獻」最大的,莫過於染色和洗水過程。

在當地一家工廠的門外,還有很多未被染色的材料。連路邊的垃圾桶裏,都堆滿了牛仔褲製造過程中產生的廢料。垃圾桶旁,就是被污染的河流。

當我們看到模特兒拍攝一輯輯有型有款的牛仔褲廣告。背後的往往流淌著被污染的河流。

而在這樣的地方,還有這樣的孩子正在長大。在他的心目中,牛仔褲是否如廣告上那樣的美麗,相信一定會得到和成年人不一樣的答案。

很難想像,這樣的水污染,正如此的和我們的生活關係密切——照片上的當地婦女就在污染河流旁邊洗衣服,而我們,也許正把污染穿在身上。水污染並不遙遠,解決中國的水污染問題,刻不容緩。

河流被生產牛仔褲過程中給污染
生活在水污染中的小孩圖片

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故事二:吃下肚的水污染 (筆者: 綠色和平媒體主任 王亞敏)

廣州番禺區的沙灣鎮,有一家水廠供應番禺及南沙100多萬戶的食水。水廠在沙灣水道取水,是一條從珠江分支出來的河流。在離取水口直線距離1.5公里的地方,當地居民的資料,讓我們發現了一個並不算大的工業區。

事實上,我們來到過這裏兩次,工廠旁邊就是一大片脆綠的菜田及蕉樹。但在菜田旁,赫然有一個排出橙色污水的排污管。

原來除了大自然的植物會隨四季變化而轉換顏色,污水亦然。我們在數月後再到當地考察,發現從排污管排出的污水已轉變為純黑色,表面浮著一層油污。

污水大量排出時,就會流入附近的小河道。而周圍的菜農就會用小河道的水灌溉農作物。

中國水污染圖片

中國水污染影響農業圖片

我們訪問過種菜的伯伯,他說尤其在晚上或者週末,工廠排的污水特別厲害。當他看到黑色的污水流進小水道裏,他們就不敢在這時候用水澆菜了,要等幾天,待水看上去「比較乾淨」的時候才用。伯伯還說,這條小河道雖小,但是最終往下流,一直流到供應百多萬人食水的沙灣水道。

伯伯又說,種出來的菜他們自己吃,吃不掉的就拿去市集賣掉。想到吃了用這樣的水種出來的菜,我的心緊緊地抽了一下。試試細想,這是在離自來水廠取水口不到1.5公里的地方啊!

這也不是區內唯一的工業園區,我們在路上看到了很多這樣規模並不大的工業區,以及眾多單獨的廠房正在運作。回來在Google裏輸入「番禺」、「沙灣」、「工業區」,就能輕輕鬆鬆找到十來個名字:三善工業區、古西工業區 、陳湧工業區、龍灣工業區、草河工業區、東村工業區、西村工業區……不知道,那些我們沒有去到考察的工業園區,情況又會如何?

曾幾何時,說到「河道縱橫」、「夕陽下一片金光燦爛的田地」、「物產豐盛」是多麼美好的一個景象。而今天,在這個河道交織的珠江三角洲,如果工業污水肆意排放,不知道「河道縱橫」又會被冠上一個甚麼樣的新意味呢?

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故事三:排污古惑招 (筆者: 綠色和平項目經理 陳宇輝) 每一次爬到排污管前抽取水質樣本時,為了確保取樣過程的科學性,總叫自己鎮靜點、一步一步按步驟工作。

但無論如何,取樣時心底總存著一絲激動。激動,只因我們到了現場,見證問題;激動也因為,我們行動起來、拿了排污樣本,掌握了某些企業的排污證據,它們就無從抵賴。

有工廠為了逃避檢查而經常在傍晚、甚至假日時才排污,我們在做取樣前的調查就更加要做足準備,了解它們的排污習慣,好讓我們能拿到最真實的排污證據;有些工廠的外圍,很明顯見到有水溝,裏頭的泥土已被污水沖刷變了顏色,更有沉積物。

抽取水質樣本圖片

像這類型的工廠,我們就需要在不同時間調查,確認它們的排污時間:試到過一家工廠,我們日間到訪時,有一個主要的排污溝沒有排水,但從現場來看,我們肯定它還是一個常用的排污口。隊友們討論後同意當天晚上再到那裏考察,果然就見到白天還是乾涸的水溝,有棕黃色的廢水大量排出、還帶有刺鼻的化學品味道。我在取樣時同伴以ph試紙,檢驗污水的酸鹼度,發現竟是強酸!夜晚才偷排有毒污水,做法簡直令人髮指。

也有一些工廠,可能是已經打好關係,它們就大模斯樣地排污。我們試過觀察到有家工廠,早上十一點它在排、下午四點它在排、晚上十一點它一樣在排!同一樣的味道,同一樣的水流,同一樣的顏色。天呀,那幾條混凝土做的排污管直徑有半米呢,不知道每年有多少有毒物質排到河中!

取樣的工作肯定不是舒服的差事。一早起來就跑到工廠,到了工廠外還要爬來爬去找那些隱藏的排污管。為了逃避保安或者是等到工廠排污,我們有時需要在中午(工人午飯時)或深夜去取樣。但無論如何,每一次當我踏上被受污染的河岸、隔著手套感受到那些污水的溫度、聞到刺鼻的氣味時,那些勞累確實算不了甚麼。

當然我更期待的是,有一天工廠都不再排放有毒污染物,我也再不必去到工廠外去取樣。畢竟,到郊外欣賞大自然美景,較爬在草叢堆裏取樣要令人欣喜得多。

綠色和平的工作人員將會繼續走訪中國主要河流流域地區,進行更多實地調查及探訪受影響社區,深入了解受害者面對的威脅。

你只需每日捐助港幣$3,就能夠資助我們執行以上的工作,成就中國人民飲用潔淨食水的願望。

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故事四:紙上談野外考察 (筆者: 綠色和平項目主任 趙琰) 野外調查,對綠色和平水污染項目來說,絕對不是最艱險的,但絕對講求技術。如果以下工具能夠使用,找到工廠的排污管並不難 -- 除非工廠千方百計不想排污管被人找到。

直升機 面對一個方圓幾公里的大廠,四周往往是無盡的農田,或者根本連路都沒有。想要繞廠一周到工廠後面看看有沒有排污管,開車往往需要兜上幾十公里,這時總是心想,如果有架直升機,超低空掠過工廠上方,想找哪兒就找哪兒,那該多好啊!

快艇 就算是直升機,也不能解決所有問題。許多工廠的排污口設置在沒有路的河邊,甚至伸到水中很遠,相信最棒的飛行員,也不能夠低空到在水面上讓我們看清排污的程度。這個時候,我們心中嚮往最威風的裝備,非快艇莫屬。只是面對中國大大小小的江河中星羅棋佈的排污管,又該如何安排「航線」呢?

潛水艇和蛙人裝備 對那些乾脆設在水下的排污管,恐怕只有配備潛水艇和蛙人裝備才能得以一窺全貌。每當遇到這樣的情況,我們總難免聯想:到底那管子裏排放什麼東西,才需要藏得如此深入呢?這樣來說,就算有技術,面對潛在的「毒物」,我們也不敢輕易下水吧。

高蹺 比起以上三種高級裝備,高蹺成本低,操作性強,實乃野外考察、居家旅行之必備佳品。高蹺可以對付泥濘的農田,可以征服不太深的水域,在遍佈人類和動物糞便的郊外,更可以保護鞋子和一顆愛美之心。如果運氣好,工廠圍牆不太高,高蹺帶來的額外高度,還有助於我們更好瞭解工廠內部結構,更準確的判斷排污管可能的位置。雖然這個裝備在實際的調查中還沒有被使用過,但無論從成本,還是功效來說,都極有潛力。

然而在實際工作中,我們並沒有這些高級的設備,除了能在陸上租車、河裏租船,大部分的難以到達的地方,我們都是徒步去取水樣本和拍照。遇到的困難亦不只是裝備的限制,還有來自對當地環境的熟識程度等等,一樣會令我們考察工作的難度大大增加。

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What we are doing to protect China's water

In addition to working in political level to address China's water pollution problems, Greenpeace also visits areas to record the stories of people directly harmed by water pollution. With your support, you can help us do more to solve the water pollution crisis!




Our 1st Story: Wearing Water Pollution (Author: Zhao Yan, Greenpeace Campaigner) This is a satellite picture from Google Earth. It is hard to imagine that this appalling polluted water situation could be physically so close to us, and so directly related to our daily lives. What could have caused this river to be so polluted?

Greenpeace members travelled to the city shown in the above photograph, and discovered that every river there was drowned in the deep dark blue color of water pollution.

There, almost every family was engaged in industry related to jeans production.

Greenpeace soon discovered that black dyes used to color jeans had caused the rivers to turn dark blue. Besides the hand-making process of producing jeans shown in the image, Greenpeace found that the entire process of manufacturing jeans that turned denim fabric to the finished jean product was found in the city. We believe that the work processes most responsible for the polluting the river was the dyeing and washing of jeans.

Outside the door of a factory were many jean fabrics that had yet to be dyed black. Trash bins near the road were stacked full of waste by-products of the jean production process, and beside these trash bins flowed the dark blue polluted river.

We saw advertisements of models wearing jeans of all styles and shapes, and in the background, flowed the river, polluted dark blue by jean dyes.

And in this environment, we saw a little boy like this growing up, and we thought to ourselves: the answer to whether this boy would be attracted to the kind of beauty proclaimed by the jean advertisements would certainly be different from the adults.

It is hard to imagine that this appalling polluted water situation is so directly related to our daily lives. But the picture of women washing clothes beside the polluted river, and our own consumption of these products, brings this relationship into stark relief. In a sense, we are wearing the dyes of water pollution. As such, the problem of water pollution is not far away from us, and it is up to us to solve this pressing and urgent crisis.

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Our 2nd Story: Drinking Polluted Water (Author: Wang Yamin, Greenpeace Media Officer)

In the district of Shawan, located in Panyu, Guangzhou, there is a water plant providing Panyu and Nansha's 1 million inhabitants with drinking water. The water plant gets its water from the Shawan channel, which flows out from the Pearl River. About 1.5 kilometers from where water is collected, we found a medium-sized industrial area.

We had actually been there twice before. Beside the factory was a large expanse of vegetable fields and banana trees. To the side of the vegetable field, shockingly deep orange-colored polluted water flowed out from a drainpipe.

It turned out that like how plants change their colors with the changing seasons, polluted water did the same as well. In the months of our investigation that followed, we found that the polluted water flowing out from the drainpipe changed color to a deep black color, with a layer of oil suspended on the water's surface.

This polluted water flowed into a nearby river channel, from which the surrounding villagers drew water to irrigate their crops.


We interviewed a man who had planted vegetables, and he said that the discharge of polluted waters was especially severe during the night or the weekends. When he had seen the black polluted waters flowing into the river channels, they did not dare to use the water to irrigate their crops, and instead waited for a few days later for cleaner waters to appear. The man added that although this river was small, it ultimately flowed downstream to the Shawan river channel, which more than 1 million people relied upon for drinking water.

The man went on to add that his family ate the vegetables that he had planted, and any excess vegetables were sold at the market. When I thought about eating plants that had been grown in such polluted water, I started to feel anxious. Think about it, this was a place that was just 1.5 kilometers from where the water plant collected water!

This was not the only industrial park in the surrounding area, as we saw many more similar medium sized parks, with surrounding housing communities. When we searched the keywords “Panyu”, “Shawan” and “Industrial district” on Google, we found the following industrial district names: Sanshan, Guxi, Chenchong, Longwan, Chaohe, Dongchun, and Xichun. We wondered what we might have found at the industrial districts that we did not visit.

Not long after, when we thought about the Chinese phrases “sweeping river channels”, “brilliant golden fields under a setting sun”, and “abundant bounty” that had been used in the past to describe the beauty of this area in the past. If the meandering water channels of the Pearl River delta were to be now recklessly poisoned by the industrial wastewater, would the phrase “sweeping river channels” come to take on a much more sinister and tragic definition?

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Our 3rd Story: Dirty Tricks (Author: Edward Chan, Greenpeace Campaign Manager) Every time we took water samples from pipes emitting polluted water, we calmly take a step-by-step approach to our work, in order to guarantee the scientific accuracy of our research.

But no matter what, taking a water samples always heightened our nerves and senses, as we were bearing witness to the grave problems of water pollution, and with our water samples, had clear evidence of the industrial water pollution that no factories could ever deny.

Some factories, in order to hide from the scrutiny of officials, dumped pollutants into the water at nightfall or on public holidays. As a result, we need to make adequate preparations when doing our water sample surveys, in order to understand these illegal dumping practices, and also to retrieve the most accurate evidence of industrial dumping. Around some of the factory areas, we found waterways and gully soil banks that had been so polluted by impurities that they had changed color.

At such factories, we had to do our investigation during different times of the day, in order to conclude when the factories dump their waste into the water. For example, on one occasion, we visited factory during the day, which showed that no pollutants were being dumped into a nearby drain. However, after much discussion, we decided to launch an investigation at night, and our suspicions proved to be valid. The drain, which was so dry during the day, became filled with toxic and sickening brownish yellow colored water at night. Our subsequent water sample Ph tests revealed that the water was extremely acidic. This blatantly irresponsible secret dumping of toxic water during the night made us bristle with anger.

At some other factories,which may have a good relation with official, we found evidences of large scale dumping of toxic water. When we did our investigation, we found that they released wastewater at 11am in the morning, 4pm in the afternoon and 11pm at night. The water in the drains looked and smelled as terrible as described above. And with these concrete drains measuring half a meter in diameter, just can't imagine how much toxic and polluted water was bring released into the rivers every year!

Taking water samples is a tough job, which consists of waking up early, running to the factories, and searching high and wide for hidden pipes discharging toxic wastewater. In order to avoid factory security or to capture factory wastewater discharge, we sometimes had to take samples during lunchtime or in the middle of the night. But no matter when or how, every time I climbed onto the banks of a river that had been polluted, and felt the temperature of the toxic water, and faced the stench that stung my nose, I took comfort in the fact that our work was making a difference.

Obviously, I look forward to the day when there are no factories dumping pollutants in our rivers, and when I will no longer need to take water samples. After all, compared to this, exploring and appreciating the beauty of nature in the countryside is so much enjoyable!

Greenpeace members will continue to explore China's most important river areas, conduct more investigations and researches into areas affected by water pollution, and deeply understand the dangers poised to innocent victims of this environmental crisis.

With your donation of just HK$ 3 a day, you can help continue our work, towards fulfilling China's wish for clean drinking water.

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Our 4th Story: Investigating Skills on Paper (Author: Zhao Yan, Greenpeace Campaigner) Doing a field study in China is not the most difficult task for Greenpeace Water Pollution team, but it is not the same for the specific investigative techniques that we need to employ to get reliable findings. Unless factories go to extraordinary lengths to hide illegal wastewater discharge, finding these cases of dumping is not difficult, especially if we had the following tools to aid us in our investigation

Helicopter Having a helicopter would certainly good in our investigation of large industrial areas that are hidden among endless plains of agriculture, and remain inaccessible due to the lack of roads. Instead of driving miles after miles over a week in search of illegal waste dumping into the rivers, it would be so much easier if we could conduct our surveys from a helicopter, which would allow us to identify and investigate problem areas more effectively.

Speedboat Even if we had a helicopter, not all problems would be solved. Many factories discharge wastewater into parts of the river, which are in far-off locations, inaccessible due to the lack of roads. And even if we had a helicopter to take us to these locations, the most able helicopter pilot would find it impossible to keep us elevated above the water surface for us to check the level of water pollution. Instead, what we need is a very fast speedboat! If we did have one, the only problem remaining would be how to decide a pathway to check every one of China's myriad of channels, gulleys and streams.

Diving boat and scuba diving equipment To investigate industrial pipes that are located completely underwater, only a combination of a diving boat, with scuba diving equipment would allow us to do a complete investigation. Whenever we are faced with this situation, we shudder to imagine what kind of industrial discharge could have spurred factories to locate these pipes in these hidden locations. As a result, even if we did have the necessary equipment to conduct our investigation, we would not take the exercise of entering these toxic waters lightly.

High Stilts Compared to the abovementioned equipment, a pair of stilts would also allow us to investigate the countryside, and would be relatively cheaper, stronger, and more portable. Stilts would allow us to deal with muddy agricultural fields, conquer shallow bodies of water, and protect our shoes from dirty animal wastes. If we are lucky and the factory walls are not too high, we could even cross over into the factories to understand the internal workings of the organization, and to better predict the location of discharge pipes. Even though, we have never used this tool for our investigation, it certainly has some potential from a cost-effectiveness perspective!

In reality, we do not have any of these high-tech tools at our disposal, and except for the occasional car or boat ride, we traverse to most of these difficult-to-reach locations on foot to take water samples and take photos. The hurdles we face are not limited to our lack of equipment; our limited knowledge of the local environment also exacerbates our difficulties.

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